Financial Inclusion, Community Capacity Building and Pro-Wildlife Conservation Behavior around the Northern Periphery of Dja Biosphere Reserve, Cameroon

Nashipu Thalut, Dobdinga Cletus Fonchamnyo, Molem Christopher Sama


The study examines the contribution of financial inclusion and community capacity building on pro-wildlife conservation behavior among rural households at the Northern Periphery of Dja Biosphere Reserve, the east region of Cameroon. The data were elicited through the survey questionnaire administered on a sample of 279 households involved in the program of conservation in the areas. The study used a cluster sampling approach in grouping proximity villages into four zones and a purposive sampling technique was used in selecting the households. The objective was achieved empirically using three-stage maximum likelihood estimation techniques; factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. The result shows that financial inclusion and community capacity building had a significant positive effect on pro-wildlife conservation behavior. The magnitude of the effect of financial inclusion on pro-wildlife conservation behavior was even larger than the magnitude of the effect of community capacity building. The findings suggest that financial inclusion and community capacity building had the tendency to reduce the decline in wildlife stocks as it promoted friendly behavior towards wildlife and its habitats. The study, therefore, recommends policies that support financial inclusion and community capacity building that are essential for sustainable conservation since it promotes pro-wildlife conservation behavior.

JEL Classification: G20, O15, Q57


conservation; financial inclusion; pro-wildlife; Cameroon

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 56 times
PDF view : 34 times

Full Text:



Adeyemia, A. A., Pramanikb, A. H., & Meerac, A. K. M. (2012). A Measurement Model of the Determinants of Financial Exclusion among Muslim Micro-entrepreneurs in Ilorin, Nigeria. Journal of Islamic Finance, 1(1), 30–43. Retrieved from

Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1975). A Bayesian analysis of attribution processes. Psychological Bulletin, 82(2), 261–277.

Ariya, G., & Momanyi, S. (2015). Assessing Wildlife Consumption Awareness and the Attitudes of the Local Lambwe Valley Community towards Ruma National Park, Kenya. Journal of Tourism & Hospitality, 4(3), 1–6.

Bentler, P. (1990). Comparative Fit Indices in Structural Models Permalink. Psychological Bulletin, 107(2), 238–246. Retrieved from

Bouché, P., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Wittemyer, G., Nianogo, A. J., Doucet, J. L., Lejeune, P., & Vermeulen, C. (2011). Will elephants soon disappear from West African Savannahs? PLoS ONE, 6(6).

Byrne, B. M. (2013). Structural Equation Modeling With AMOS: Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming, Second Edition (2nd ed.). Taylor & Francis. Retrieved from

Carmines, E. G., Zeller, R. A., Zeller, R. A., SAGE., & Sage Publications, inc. (1979). Reliability and Validity Assessment. SAGE Publications. Retrieved from

Chase, M., Schlossberg, S., Sutcliffe, R., & Seonyatseng, E. (2018). Dry Season Aerial Survey of Elephants and Wildlife in Northern Botswana July – October 2018. Kasane, Botswana. Retrieved from

Chau, P. Y. K. (1997). Reexamining a model for evaluating information center success using a structural equation modeling approach. Decision Sciences, 28(2), 309–334.

Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16(3), 297–334.

Demirgüç-Kunt, A., Honohan, P., & Beck, T. (2008). Finance for All?: Policies and Pitfalls in Expanding Access. World bank. Washington, DC. Retrieved from

Epanda, M. A., Mukam Fotsing, A. J., Bacha, T., Frynta, D., Lens, L., Tchouamo, I. R., & Jef, D. (2019). Linking local people’s perception of wildlife and conservation to livelihood and poaching alleviation: A case study of the Dja biosphere reserve, Cameroon. Acta Oecologica, 97(April), 42–48.

Fang, W. T., Ng, E., Wang, C. M., & Hsu, M. L. (2017). Normative beliefs, attitudes, and social norms: People reduce waste as an index of social relationships when spending leisure time. Sustainability (Switzerland), 9(10), 1–18.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural Equation Models With Unobservable Variables And Measurement Error: Algebra and statistics. SAGE Publications Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA. Retrieved from

Gifford, R., & Nilsson, A. (2014). Personal and social factors that influence pro-environmental concern and behaviour: A review. International Journal of Psychology, 49(3), 141–157.

Gorsuch, R. L. (1990). Common Factor Analysis versus Component Analysis: Some Well and Little Known Facts. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 25(1), 33–39.

Hoe, S. L. (2008). Issues and procedures in adopting structural equation modelling technique. Journal of Applied Quantitative Methodes, 3(1), 76–83. Retrieved from

Hoole, A., & Berkes, F. (2010). Breaking down fences: Recoupling social–ecological systems for biodiversity conservation in Namibia. Geoforum, 41(2), 304–317.

Hulland, J. (1999). Use of Partial Least Squares (PLS) in Strategic Management Research: A Review of Four Recent Studies. Strategic Management Journal, 20(4), 195–204.

Jolliffe, I. (1989). Latent Variable Models and Factor Analysis. Applied Statistics, 38(3), 521.

Kideghesho, J. R., Røskaft, E., & Kaltenborn, B. P. (2007). Factors influencing conservation attitudes of local people in Western Serengeti, Tanzania. Biodiversity and Conservation, 16(7), 2213–2230. .

Muhumuza, M., & Balkwill, K. (2013). Factors Affecting the Success of Conserving Biodiversity in National Parks: A Review of Case Studies from Africa. International Journal of Biodiversity, 2013, 1–20.

Ofeh, M. A., & Thalut, N. (2018). Financial Exclusion and Sustainable Rice Production: A Model of Poverty Reduction in Ndop, Cameroon. SSRG International Journal of Economics Management Studies ( SSRG-IJEMS ), 5(12), 8–15.

Ogutu, J. O., Piepho, H. P., Said, M. Y., Ojwang, G. O., Njino, L. W., Kifugo, S. C., & Wargute, P. W. (2016). Extreme wildlife declines and concurrent increase in livestock numbers in Kenya: What are the causes? PLoS ONE, 11(9), 1–46.

Scholte, P. (2011). Towards understanding large mammal population declines in Africa’s protected areas: A West-Central African perspective. Tropical Conservation Science, 4(1), 4–11.

Schreiber, J. B., Stage, F. K., King, J., Nora, A., & Barlow, E. A. (2006). Reporting structural equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis results: A review. Journal of Educational Research, 99(6), 323–338.

Segars, A. H., & Grover, V. (1998). Strategic information systems planning success: An investigation of the construct and its measurement. MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems, 22(2), 139–162.

Seidensticker, J. (2010). Saving wild tigers: A case study in biodiversity loss and challenges to be met for recovery beyond 2010. Integrative Zoology, 5(4), 285–299.

Thouless, C. R., Dublin, H. T., Blanc, J. J., Skinner, D. P., Daniel, T. E., Taylor, R. D., … Bouché, P. J. C. (2016). African elephant status report 2016: an update from the African elephant database. Occasional paper series of the IUCN Species Survival Commission, (60), vi + 309pp.

UNODC. (2016). World Wildlife Crime Report 2016: Trafficking in Protected Species. New York: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Retrieved from

Walpole, M., & Wilder, L. (2008). Disentangling the links between conservation and poverty reduction in practice. Oryx, 42(4), 539–547.


  • There are currently no refbacks.