Gender preference on the quality of landscape aesthetic of urban agriculture

Diah Retno Dwi Hastuti, Rahim Darma, Darmawan Salman, Slamet Santosa, Triyatni Martosenjoyo, Novaty Eny Dungga


In addition to providing food benefits, urban agriculture also has aesthetic benefits. Therefore, a visual assessment of the urban agricultural landscape can be used to measure this aesthetic value. Gender preference is also carried out to see differences in visual assessment. This research was conducted in Makassar City using primary data with 129 respondents consisting of 53 people who had never been to Makassar and 76 people who had been/lived in Makassar. The aesthetic assessment of agricultural landscapes in Makassar City used the Scenic Beauty Estimation (SBE) method with a perceptual dimension. The results showed that the most beautiful urban agricultural landscapes had a high level of preference, namely in various plant gardens and verticultural hydroponic systems. Furthermore, the highest SBE score as a potential attraction was shown by male respondent who had never been to Makassar. Possible urban agricultural landscape resources should receive special attention by arranging them neatly and cleanly so that they have high artistic value to provide beauty and comfort for visitors.

JEL Classification:  C00; O13; Q19


COVID-19; gender preference; Scenic Beauty Estimation; urban agriculture; urban landscape

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 4 times
PDF view : 4 times

Full Text:



Adidja, M. W., Mwine, J., Majaliwa, J. G. M., & Ssekandi, J. (2019). The contribution of agro-ecology as a solution to hunger in the world: A review. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, 33(2), 1–22.

Admire, J. (2014). Synergies between urban agriculture and urban household food security in Gweru City, Zimbabwe. Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics, 6(2), 59–66.

Aubry, C., Ramamonjisoa, J., Dabat, M.-H., Rakotoarisoa, J., Rakotondraibe, J., & Rabeharisoa, L. (2012). Urban agriculture and land use in cities: An approach with the multi-functionality and sustainability concepts in the case of Antananarivo (Madagascar). Land Use Policy, 29(2), 429–439.

Azunre, G. A., Amponsah, O., Peprah, C., Takyi, S. A., & Braimah, I. (2019). A review of the role of urban agriculture in the sustainable city discourse. Cities, 93, 104–119.

Bell, S. (2004). Elements of Visual Design in the Landscape (2nd ed.). Spon Press. Retrieved from

Bellemare, M. F., & Dusoruth, V. (2020). Who participates in urban agriculture? An empirical analysis. Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, 43, 430–442.

Benis, K., & Ferrão, P. (2018). Commercial farming within the urban built environment – Taking stock of an evolving field in northern countries. Global Food Security, 17, 30–37.

Bonsdorff, P. von. (2005). Agriculture, Aesthetic Appreciation and the Worlds of Nature. 3. Retrieved from spo.7523862.0003.007

Bosley, D. S. (1993). A study of gender and its influence on visual design. Technical Communication, 40(3), 543–547. Retrieved from

Brady, E. (2006). The aesthetics of agricultural landscapes and the relationship between humans and nature. Ethics, Place & Environment, 9(1), 1–19.

Budiyono, D., Nurisjah, S., & Adrianto, L. (2013). Perencanaan lanskap kawasan wisata pesisir Lalong Kota Luwuk, Sulawesi Tengah. Jurnal Lanskap Indonesia, 5(2), 21–27.

Budiyono, D., & Soelistyari, H. T. (2016). Evaluasi kualitas visual lanskap wisata Pantai Balekambang di Desa Srigonco, Kabupaten Malang. Jurnal Lanskap Indonesia, 8(2), 80–90.

Chenarides, L., Grebitus, C., Lusk, J. L., & Printezis, I. (2021). Who practices urban agriculture? An empirical analysis of participation before and during the COVID‐19 pandemic. Agribusiness, 37(11), 142–159.

Child, I. L. (1964). Observations on the meaning of some measures of esthetic sensitivity. The Journal of Psychology, 57(1), 49–64.

Daniel, T.C., & Boster, R. S. (1976). Measuring Landscape Aesthetic: The Scenic Beauty Estimation Method. USDA Forest Service. Retrieved from

Daniel, Terry C. (2001). Whither scenic beauty? Visual landscape quality assessment in the 21st century. Landscape and Urban Planning, 54(1–4), 267–281.

Dearden, P. (1984). Factors influencing landscape preferences: An empirical investigation. Landscape Planning, 11(4), 293–306.

DiDomenica, B., & Gordon, M. (2016). Food policy: Urban farming as a supplemental food source. Journal of Social Change, 8(1).

Fanariotu, I., & Skuras, D. (2004). The contribution of scenic beauty indicators in estimating environmental welfare measures: A case study. Social Indicators Research, 65, 145–165.

Frank, S., Fürst, C., Koschke, L., Witt, A., & Makeschin, F. (2013). Assessment of landscape aesthetics—Validation of a landscape metrics-based assessment by visual estimation of the scenic beauty. Ecological Indicators, 32, 222–231.

Galimberti, A., Cena, H., Campone, L., Ferri, E., Dell’Agli, M., Sangiovanni, E., Belingheri, M., Riva, M. A., Casiraghi, M., & Labra, M. (2020). Rethinking urban and food policies to improve citizens safety after COVID-19 pandemic. Frontiers in Nutrition, 7, 569542.

Geng, D. (Christina), Innes, J., Wu, W., & Wang, G. (2020). Impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on urban park visitation: a global analysis. Journal of Forestry Research, 32(2), 553–567.

Goodman, W., & Minner, J. (2019). Will the urban agricultural revolution be vertical and soilless? A case study of controlled environment agriculture in New York City. Land Use Policy, 83, 160–173.

Grebitus, C., Chenarides, L., Muenich, R., & Mahalov, A. (2020). Consumers’ perception of urban farming—An exploratory study. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, 4.

Hartmann, J., Sutcliffe, A., & Angeli, A. De. (2008). Towards a theory of user judgment of aesthetics and user interface quality. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 15(4), 1–30.

Hedblom, M., Hedenås, H., Blicharska, M., Adler, S., Knez, I., Mikusiński, G., Svensson, J., Sandström, S., Sandström, P., & Wardle, D. A. (2020). Landscape perception: linking physical monitoring data to perceived landscape properties. Landscape Research, 45(2), 179–192.

Hidayat, I. W. (2009). Uji scenic beauty estimation terhadap konfigurasi tegakan-tegakan vegetasi di Kebun Raya Bogor. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Sains MIPA Dan Aplikasinya, 49–54.

Hill, D., & Daniel, T. C. (2007). Foundations for an ecological aesthetic: Can information alter landscape preferences? Society & Natural Resources, 21(1), 34–49.

Ibrahim, L., & Salim, S. A. (2020). The framework of urban farming towards enhancing quality of life in Malaysia. International Journal of Supply Chain Management, 9(1), 520–526. Retrieved from

Ilhami, W. T., & Gunawan, A. (2011). Persepsi Dan preferensi warna dalam lanskap. Jurnal Lanskap Indonesia, 3(2), 73–79. Retrieved from

Jacobsen, T. (2010). Beauty and the brain: culture, history and individual differences in aesthetic appreciation. Journal of Anatomy, 216(2), 184–191.

Jashari, A. S., Brand, A., Roinishvili, M., Kunchulia, M., Sierro, G., Willemin, J., Chkonia, E., Iannantuoni, L., Pilz, K., Mohr, C., & Herzog, M. (2016). Gender differences in visual perception. Journal of Vision, 16(12), 207.

Jashari, A. S., Roinishvili, M., Grzeczkowski, L., Chkonia, E., Pilz, K., Mohr, C., Brand, A., Kunchulia, M., & Herzog, M. H. (2018). Sex-related differences in vision are heterogeneous. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 7521.

Khan, M. M., Akram, M. T., Janke, R., Qadri, R. W. K., Al-Sadi, A. M., & Farooque, A. A. (2020). Urban horticulture for food secure cities through and beyond COVID-19. Sustainability, 12(22), 9592.

Kinasih, R. S., Roessali, W., & Prasetyo, E. (2020). Visitors’ satisfaction and development strategy of agrotourism: evidence from Semarang, Indonesia. Journal of Socioeconomics and Development, 3(2), 101-114.

Lal, R. (2020). Home gardening and urban agriculture for advancing food and nutritional security in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Food Security, 12, 871–876.

Li, C., Shen, S., & Ding, L. (2020a). Evaluation of the winter landscape of the plant community of urban park green spaces based on the scenic beauty esitimation method in Yangzhou, China. Plos One, 15(10), e0239849.

Li, L., Li, X., Chong, C., Wang, C.-H., & Wang, X. (2020b). A decision support framework for the design and operation of sustainable urban farming systems. Journal of Cleaner Production, 268, 121928.

Li, S., Nadolnyak, D., & Hartarska, V. (2019). Agricultural land conversion: Impacts of economic and natural risk factors in a coastal area. Land Use Policy, 80, 380–390.

López-Martínez, F. (2017). Visual landscape preferences in Mediterranean areas and their socio-demographic influences. Ecological Engineering, 104, 205–215.

Lothian, A. (1999). Landscape and the philosophy of aesthetics: is landscape quality inherent in the landscape or in the eye of the beholder? Landscape and Urban Planning, 44(4), 177–198.

Marroquín, B., Vine, V., & Morgan, R. (2020). Mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic: Effects of stay-at-home policies, social distancing behavior, and social resources. Psychiatry Research, 293, 113419.

Martin, M., & Molin, E. (2019). Environmental assessment of an urban vertical hydroponic farming system in Sweden. Sustainability, 11(15), 4124. su11154124

Mo, L., Chen, J., & Xie, Y. (2021). Assessment of landscape resource using the scenic beauty estimation method at compound ecological system. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(5), 5892–5899.

Molden, D., Oweis, T., Steduto, P., Bindraban, P., Hanjra, M. A., & Kijne, J. (2010). Improving agricultural water productivity: Between optimism and caution. Agricultural Water Management, 97(4), 528–535.

Molnárová, J. K., Skřivanová, Z., Kalivoda, O., & Sklenička, P. (2017). Rural identity and landscape aesthetics in exurbia: Some issues to resolve from a Central European perspective. Moravian Geographical Reports, 25(1), 2–12.

Mulyani, H. S., Agustin, H., & Zulfan, I. (2019). Implementation of community empowerment communication in the need of environmental food security through the Program “Bandung Agri Market.” International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, 23(2), 289–297.

Ngahdiman, I., Terano, R., Mohamed, Z., & Sharifuddin., J. (2017). Factors affecting urban dwellers to practice urban agriculture. International Journal of Advanced Research, 5(7), 1580–1587.

Nguyen, T. H. T., Tran, V. T., Bui, Q. T., Man, Q. H., & Walter, T. de V. (2016). Socio-economic effects of agricultural land conversion for urban development: Case study of Hanoi, Vietnam. Land Use Policy, 54, 583–592.

Norman, J. F., Dowell, C. J., Higginbotham, A. J., Fedorka, N. W., & Norman, H. F. (2018). Sex and age modulate the visual perception of distance. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 80(8), 2022–2032.

Nugroho, I., Negara, P. D., & Yuniar, H. R. (2018). the planning and the development of the ecotourism and tourism village in Indonesia: A policy review. Journal of Socioeconomics and Development, 1(1), 43-51.

Nurfaida, Arifin, H. S., Sitorus, S. R. P., & Eriyatno, A. (2019). Assessing scenic beauty of culture-based landscapes in North Toraja Regency. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 399, 012040.

Palmer, S. E., Schloss, K. B., & Sammartino, J. (2013). Visual aesthetics and human preference. Annual Review of Psychology, 64(1), 77–107.

Peng, S.-H., & Han, K.-T. (2018). Assessment of aesthetic quality on soil and water conservation engineering using the scenic beauty estimation method. Water, 10(4), 407.

Redies, C. (2014). Beauty: Neglected, but alive and kicking. British Journal of Psychology, 105(4), 468–470.

Saccon, P. (2018). Water for agriculture, irrigation management. Applied Soil Ecology, 123, 793–796.

Shi, Y., Lv, D., & He, J. (2020). Landscape evaluation of urban parks based on SBE and AHP: a case study of Kunming City. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 580, 012016.

Shular, C. F., Arruda, J. E., Greenier, K. D., & Pratt, M. (2005). Sex differences in visual perception using stereopsis. Psi Chi Journal Of Undergraduate Research, 10(4), 139–144. Retrieved from

Skřivanová, Z., Kalivoda, O., & Sklenička, P. (2014). Driving factors for visual landscape preferences in protected landscape areas. Scientia Agriculturae Bohemica, 45(1), 36–43.

Sowińska-Świerkosz, B. N., & Chmielewski, T. J. (2016). A new approach to the identification of Landscape Quality Objectives (LQOs) as a set of indicators. Journal of Environmental Management, 184, 596–608.

Svobodova, K., Sklenicka, P., Molnarova, K., & Vojar, J. (2014). Does the composition of landscape photographs affect visual preferences? The rule of the Golden Section and the position of the horizon. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 38, 143–152.

Valley, W., & Wittman, H. (2019). Beyond feeding the city: The multifunctionality of urban farming in Vancouver, BC. City, Culture and Society, 16, 36–44.

Vanston, J. E., & Strother, L. (2017). Sex differences in the human visual system. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 95(1–2), 617–625.

Wang, Z., Li, M., Zhang, X., & Song, L. (2020). Modeling the scenic beauty of autumnal tree color at the landscape scale: A case study of Purple Mountain, Nanjing, China. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 47, 126526.

Xie, J., Luo, S., Furuya, K., & Sun, D. (2020). Urban parks as green buffers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Sustainability, 12(17), 6751.

Yusoff, N. H., Mohd Hussain, M. R., & Tukiman, I. (2017). Roles of community towards urban farming activities. Planning Malaysia Journal, 15(1).

Zezza, A., & Tasciotti, L. (2010). Urban agriculture, poverty, and food security: Empirical evidence from a sample of developing countries. Food Policy, 35(4), 265–273.


  • There are currently no refbacks.